Фотограф, проведшая годы на злачных улицах Нью-Йорка с полицейскими города, рассказывает о их службе в 1970-х и 1980-х годах.

Two NYPD officers stand in the entrance of a peep show titled 'House of Paradise', Midtown Manhattan, New York City, circa 1979. (Photo by Jill Freedman/Getty Images)

Эти мрачные черно-белые фотографии рассказывают о времени насилия, роста преступности, бюджетных проблем и сокращений, а также о нескольких бедах, с которыми столкнулся Нью-Йорк: ситуация с налогами, нарастающий кризис ВИЧ/СПИДа и бедствие крэк-кокаина, заражающего районы. Фотограф Джилл Фридман (1939-2019) запечатлела все хорошее, плохое и уродливое в Нью-Йорке 1970-80-х годов. Имея беспрецедентный доступ к двум участкам полиции Нью-Йорка – южному участку Мидтауна в районе Таймс-сквер и Пенн-Стейшн и девятому участку в Ист-Виллидж – Фридман была там, когда полиция производила аресты, взаимодействовала с местными жителями и документировала товарищеские отношения между полицейскими.  Я поставил перед собой цель лишить насилие гламурного налёта”, – сказал однажды Фридман. 

Эти фото отзываются и сегодня. Во время пандемии и последовавшей за ней остановки производства в городе резко возросла преступность. Уровень преступности продолжает расти, согласно последним данным полиции Нью-Йорка за октябрь: общий уровень преступности вырос на 11,2%, ограбления – на 15,8%, а нападения преступников – на 13,8%. И хотя количество убийств снизилось, их число все еще выше, чем в 2018 и 2019 годах.  Будущий мэр Эрик Адамс, сам бывший полицейский, заявил, что он снова выведет на улицы полицейских в штатском – подразделения по борьбе с преступностью, которые были расформированы после прошлогодних протестов против финансирования полиции в связи со смертью Джорджа Флойда. Хоук Ньюсом, соучредитель организации Black Lives Matter в Нью-Йорке, заявил, что будут “беспорядки”, “пожар” и “кровопролитие”, если спорные подразделения, причастные к убийствам Эрика Гарнера, Шона Белла и Амаду Диалло, вернутся на улицы города. ‘Иногда задаешься вопросом о себе. Что заставляет тебя выходить на службу? Что заставляет ездить по Гарлему или Южному Бронксу посреди ночи?” – пишет Фридман в книге Street Cops, (Уличные полицейские), которая была впервые опубликована в 1981 году и недавно переиздана, согласно New Yorker.

Photographer Jill Freedman (1939-2019) stepped into the bedlam of New York City during its most turbulent decades - the 1970s and '80s - to document its firefighters, cops and people. For two years, she had unprecedented access to the NYPD and spent 'entire days touring the streets and entire nights drinking with the men and women of the NYPD,' according to press release for her book, Street Cops, which has been recently reprinted. Above, an image from her book in which police officers carry a man out of a building

Фотограф Джилл Фридман (1939-2019) смело входила в кошмар улиц Нью-Йорка в его самые бурные десятилетия – 1970-е и 80-е годы чтобы задокументировать службу пожарных, полицейских и жизнь простых людей. В течение двух лет она имела беспрецедентный доступ к полиции Нью-Йорка и проводила “целые дни, путешествуя по улицам, и целые ночи, выпивая с мужчинами и женщинами из полиции Нью-Йорка”, – говорится в пресс-релизе к ее книге “Уличные копы”, которая недавно была переиздана. Выше, иллюстрация из ее книги, на которой полицейские выносят мужчину из здания.

During the late 1970s and early 1980s, Freedman was basically 'embedded' with two NYPD's precincts: Midtown South of Times Square and Penn Station, and the Ninth Precinct of the East Village. Crime soared during the 1970s due to a number of factors, including New York City's fiscal crisis. Financial woes for the city started in the 1960s and get worse in the next decades due to dwindling federal monies, a ballooning debt and people leaving the city for the suburbs. Above, a cop leads a man in handcuffs down the stairs

В конце 1970-х и начале 1980-х годов Фридман была практически “прикомандирована” к двум участкам полиции Нью-Йорка: южному участку Мидтауна в районе Таймс-сквер и Пенн-Стейшн и девятому участку в Ист-Виллидж. Рост преступности в 1970-е годы был вызван рядом факторов, в том числе финансовым кризисом в Нью-Йорке. Финансовые проблемы города начались в 1960-х годах и усугублялись в последующие десятилетия из-за сокращения поступления денег из федерального бюджета, растущего долга и отъезда людей из города в пригороды. На снимке: полицейский ведет мужчину в наручниках вниз по лестнице.

Freedman didn't set out to be a photographer. She studied sociology and then traveled. In 1964, she moved to New York City and two years later, she picked up a camera. 'I'd never taken a picture and I woke up wanting a camera,' she said, according to her October 9, 2019 obituary in the New York Times. Above, two arrested men - one with a bloodied face - allowed Freedman to take their picture

Фридман не ставила перед собой цель стать фотографом. Она изучала социологию, а затем путешествовала. В 1964 году она переехала в Нью-Йорк и два года спустя взяла в руки камеру. “Я никогда не фотографировала и не горела желанием проснуться и вдруг заиметь камеру”, – говорила она согласно ее некрологу в газете “Нью-Йорк Таймс” от 9 октября 2019 года. Выше, двое арестованных мужчин – один с окровавленным лицом – позволили Фридман их сфотографировать 

The 1960s in the United States was a decade of upheaval propelled by social justice and counterculture movements, the war in Vietnam and music. It was also an era of loss. President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in 1963, his brother Robert F. Kennedy and civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968. Freedman first chronicled the Poor People's Campaign after King's death and those images were featured in Life Magazine and then in her first book, Old News: Resurrection City, which was published in 1971, according to the obituary. Above, two cops with their billy clubs

1960-е годы в США были десятилетием потрясений, вызванных движением за социальную справедливость и контркультурой, войной во Вьетнаме и музыкой. Это была также эпоха потерь. В 1963 году был убит президент Джон Ф. Кеннеди, в 1968 году – его брат Роберт Ф. Кеннеди и лидер движения за гражданские права Мартин Лютер Кинг-младший. Фридман впервые запечатлела кампанию бедняков после смерти Кинга, и эти снимки были опубликованы в журнале Life, а затем в ее первой книге “Old News: Resurrection City” (Старые новости: Город восстания), которая была опубликована в 1971 году, согласно некрологу. Выше, два полицейских с дубинками.

In the 1970s, New York City was dubbed 'Fear City' by NYPD union officials furious with with then Mayor Abraham Beame, who slashed the police force's due to a tremendous amount of debt and its fiscal crisis. They created a flyer with the ominous figure of death as its cover with dire warnings for tourists about the city and the subway. Above, a boy points a toy gun at another boy while a cop looks on

В 1970-х годах Нью-Йорк получил название “Город страха” от профсоюзных работников полиции Нью-Йорка, разгневанных тогдашним мэром Абрахамом Бимом, который сократил штат полиции из-за огромного долга и финансового кризиса. Они создали брошюру со зловещей фигурой смерти в качестве обложки, в которой содержались страшные предупреждения для туристов о городе и метро. Вверху мальчик направляет игрушечный пистолет на другого мальчика, в то время как полицейский смотрит на него.

Above, police officers let boys hang out on their car. Today, the NYPD's community outreach includes events like National Night Out Against Crime - a block party that often includes food, music and booths. Precincts also have community councils in which people in the area can bring safety and quality-of-life concerns to detectives at meetings

Вверху полицейские разрешили мальчикам посидеть на капоте своей машины. Сегодня полиция Нью-Йорка работает с населением, проводя такие мероприятия, как National Night Out Against Crime – квартальная вечеринка, которая часто включает в себя еду, музыку и стенды. В участках также существуют общественные советы, во время встреч в которых жители района могут донести до детективов проблемы безопасности и качества жизни.

'After spending entire days touring the streets and entire nights drinking with the men and women of the NYPD, she started to see the heroism and compassion of the good cops. The ones nobody talked about, who were out there to help their city, seeing the best and the worst of humanity. The ones people loved and respected,' according to the book's press release. Freedman was able to capture the camaraderie among cops, seen above

“Проводя целые дни на улицах и ночи напролет, выпивая после работы с мужчинами и женщинами из полиции Нью-Йорка, она начала видеть героизм и проявление сострадания со стороны полицейских. Тех, о которых никто не говорил, которые помогали своему городу, видя лучшие и худшие стороны человечества. Тех, кого люди любили и уважали”, – говорится в пресс-релизе книги. Фридман удалось запечатлеть товарищеские отношения между полицейскими, как показано выше.

After chronicling the Poor People's Campaign, she then spent years documenting the city's firefighters in Harlem and the South Bronx. Freedman often slept at the stations or in the chief's car, according to the Times obituary. Those photographs became part of her book, Firehouse, that was published in 1977. 'She had really macho guys like cops and firemen letting down a facade,' said Cheryl Dunn, a filmmaker and photographer. Freedman was one of the street photographers included for Dunn's 2013 documentary Everybody Street. Above, two cops seem to be lifting up a man

После освещения Кампании бедняков (Poor People’s Campaign) она провела годы, документируя работу городских пожарных в Гарлеме и Южном Бронксе. Фридман часто ночевала на станциях или в патрульной машине, говорится в некрологе “Таймс”. Эти фотографии стали частью ее книги “Firehouse” (Дом пожарных)”, которая была опубликована в 1977 году. У нее были настоящие мачо – полицейские и пожарные, которые раскрывались и показывали свою сущность”, – говорит Шерил Данн, режиссер и фотограф. Фридман была одним из уличных фотографов, чьи снимки вошли в документальный фильм Данна 2013 года “Everybody Street” (Всеобщие улицы). Вверху два полицейских поднимают мужчину, плохо стоящего на ногах.

After her time with firefighters, Freedman then spent years with the NYPD. Most of her time was spent with cops at two precincts - Midtown South and the Ninth. Midtown South covers Times Square, which during the 1970s was a hotbed of sex workers, peep shows and pornography. Above, one cop seems to pull the white sweatshirt of a man on the street

После работы в пожарной охране Фридман несколько лет проработала в полиции Нью-Йорка. Большую часть времени она работала с полицейскими в двух участках – Южном Мидтауне и Девятом участке. Южный Мидтаун охватывает Таймс-сквер, который в 1970-е годы был рассадником проституции, пип-шоу и порнографии. Выше, один полицейский тянет за белую рубашку человека на улице.

Due to a staggering debt and fiscal crisis, the city cut services and chopped departments, like sanitation, and slashed the police force and firefighters' budgets. Many lost their job. The police union decided to pass out flyers at the airport to tourists that warned of the city's dangers. Above, a man who needs medical attention with his family and friends

Due to a staggering debt and fiscal crisis, the city cut services and chopped departments, like sanitation, and slashed the police force and firefighters’ budgets. Many lost their job. The police union decided to pass out flyers at the airport to tourists that warned of the city’s dangers. Above, a man who needs medical attention with his family and friends

'I put a lot of time into being invisible,' Freedman once said. 'When I was a kid, I always wished I had one of those rings or cloaks that made you invisible. Then I realized years later, I am invisible behind a camera. I am a camera.' Above, one police officer holds a woman by the arms while two others speak with a man with children

‘I put a lot of time into being invisible,’ Freedman once said. ‘When I was a kid, I always wished I had one of those rings or cloaks that made you invisible. Then I realized years later, I am invisible behind a camera. I am a camera.’ Above, one police officer holds a woman by the arms while two others speak with a man with children

Above, cops try to get a bloodied man into a squad car

Above, cops try to get a bloodied man into a squad car 

'For over two years, Jill Freedman joined two precincts of the NYPD as they responded to the violence and the unpredictability of the place, putting herself directly on the frontline like an invisible witness,' according to the press release for Street Cops, which was first published in 1981 and recently reprinted. Above, a boys cries while a woman speaks to one officer. The two cops detain a man

‘For over two years, Jill Freedman joined two precincts of the NYPD as they responded to the violence and the unpredictability of the place, putting herself directly on the frontline like an invisible witness,’ according to the press release for Street Cops, which was first published in 1981 and recently reprinted. Above, a boys cries while a woman speaks to one officer. The two cops detain a man

Her work was a mix of activism and quietly bearing witness.  ‘I put a lot of time into being invisible,’ she once said. ‘When I was a kid, I always wished I had one of those rings or cloaks that made you invisible. Then I realized years later, I am invisible behind a camera. I am a camera.’ After her first book, Freedman then turned her attention to firefighters in Harlem and the South Bronx. Supposedly famed sportscaster Howard Cosell once said, ‘The Bronx is burning’ while covering the 1977 World Series between the Yankees against the Los Angeles Dodgers. Game two was being played at Yankee Stadium in the South Bronx. (The Yankees would win the series.) Cosell never said the famous remark, according to the New York Post. Nonetheless, the phrase came to illustrate the city and its financial woes during that decade. The 1975 New York Daily News headline – Ford to City: Drop Dead – is the other well-known phrase of the era. President Gerald Ford never said those exact words, but he refused to give the city any federal help during its fiscal crisis.

New York City’s fiscal problems started in the 1960s but came to a head in the 1970s with dwindling federal monies, a ballooning debt and people leaving the city for the suburbs. Instead of paying high property taxes, landlords abandoned buildings in some parts of the cities – giving rise to the Downtown art scene where people squatted or had cheap rent – but, also, in some cases, they burned their property for the insurance money.  In addition, cuts to the FDNY – the Fire Department of City of New York – started in 1971, according to the Post.  Freedman spent two years documenting firefighters and often slept at the stations or in the chief’s car, according to the Times obituary. Those photographs became part of her book, Firehouse, that was published in 1977.

‘She had really macho guys like cops and firemen letting down a facade,’ said Cheryl Dunn,a filmmaker and photographer. Freedman was one of the street photographers included for Dunn’s 2013 documentary Everybody Street. After her time with firefighters, Freedman then spent years with the NYPD. Most of her time was spent with cops at two precincts – Midtown South and the Ninth. Midtown South covers Times Square, which during the 1970s was a hotbed of sex workers, peep shows and pornography. The Ninth ‘serves the area from East Houston Street to East 14 Street from Broadway, to the East River in Manhattan. The precinct is home to the East Village, and features Tompkins Square Park,’ according to its website. In 1988, protestors clashed with police in what would became known as the Tompkins Square Park riot. Freedman spent ‘entire days touring the streets and entire nights drinking with the men and women of the NYPD,’ and ‘started to see the heroism and compassion of the good cops. The ones nobody talked about, who were out there to help their city, seeing the best and the worst of humanity. The ones people loved and respected,’ according to the book’s press release. When Street Cops were initially published, she wrote: ‘They see it all; I saw enough.’ 

The New Yorker noted that 'the spirit of Weegee haunts Jill Freedman¿s photographs of New York street cops. Both worked in inky, matter-of-fact black and white. Both wanted to be at the scene of the crime while the blood was still wet. Both were unsentimental, tenacious, and tough. They didn¿t look away, and they won¿t let us ignore what they saw: New York at its rawest and scuzziest (the precinct walls are as ruined as tenement hallways).' Above, a cop points his finger at a man while another looks on

The New Yorker noted that ‘the spirit of Weegee haunts Jill Freedman’s photographs of New York street cops. Both worked in inky, matter-of-fact black and white. Both wanted to be at the scene of the crime while the blood was still wet. Both were unsentimental, tenacious, and tough. They didn’t look away, and they won’t let us ignore what they saw: New York at its rawest and scuzziest (the precinct walls are as ruined as tenement hallways).’ Above, a cop points his finger at a man while another looks on

Arthur Fellig (1899-1868), who was known as Weegee, was born in what is now Ukraine and came to the United States with his family. A self-taught photographer, he first freelanced for newspapers but by the 1930s, he got permission to have a police radio in his car. His crime scene photography has became legendary. Freedman took images of police officers while they arrested people as well as when they engaged and helped the community. Above, an officer speaks with a woman while New Yorkers crowd around and watch

Arthur Fellig (1899-1868), who was known as Weegee, was born in what is now Ukraine and came to the United States with his family. A self-taught photographer, he first freelanced for newspapers but by the 1930s, he got permission to have a police radio in his car. His crime scene photography has became legendary. Freedman took images of police officers while they arrested people as well as when they engaged and helped the community. Above, an officer speaks with a woman while New Yorkers crowd around and watch

During the fiscal crisis of the 1970s, garbage was often left on the street due to a tightening of resources and personnel for the city's sanitation department. Above, a plainclothes cop subdues a man on a street littered with trash

During the fiscal crisis of the 1970s, garbage was often left on the street due to a tightening of resources and personnel for the city’s sanitation department. Above, a plainclothes cop subdues a man on a street littered with trash

Two phrases continue to illustrate the financial dire straits that New York City was in during the 1970s: 'The Bronx is burning' and the 1975 New York Daily News headline - Ford to City: Drop Dead. President Gerald Ford never said those exact words, but he refused to give the city any federal help during its fiscal crisis. Above, a distressed man surrounded by a cop, New Yorkers and an EMT

Two phrases continue to illustrate the financial dire straits that New York City was in during the 1970s: ‘The Bronx is burning’ and the 1975 New York Daily News headline – Ford to City: Drop Dead. President Gerald Ford never said those exact words, but he refused to give the city any federal help during its fiscal crisis. Above, a distressed man surrounded by a cop, New Yorkers and an EMT

New York City's fiscal problems started in the 1960s but came to a head in the 1970s with dwindling federal monies, a ballooning debt and people leaving the city for the suburbs. Instead of paying high property taxes, landlords abandoned buildings in some parts of the cities - giving rise to the Downtown art scene where people squatted or had cheap rent - but, also, in some cases, they burned their property for the insurance money. Above, two cops arrest a man

New York City’s fiscal problems started in the 1960s but came to a head in the 1970s with dwindling federal monies, a ballooning debt and people leaving the city for the suburbs. Instead of paying high property taxes, landlords abandoned buildings in some parts of the cities – giving rise to the Downtown art scene where people squatted or had cheap rent – but, also, in some cases, they burned their property for the insurance money. Above, two cops arrest a man

Above, a police officer relaxes for a moment with other cops during a shift

Above, a police officer relaxes for a moment with other cops during a shift

Freedman's 'images are raw and direct; unafraid to show the horror,' according to the book's press release. 'But she also captured the humor and tenderness of a situation. The vulnerability. Freedman approached photography with an anthropological interest and no judgment. She wanted to tell a story as she saw it and heard it. Street Cops is collection of stories about a city and its people on both sides of the law.' Above, a police officer speaks with a little girl at an event

Freedman’s ‘images are raw and direct; unafraid to show the horror,’ according to the book’s press release. ‘But she also captured the humor and tenderness of a situation. The vulnerability. Freedman approached photography with an anthropological interest and no judgment. She wanted to tell a story as she saw it and heard it. Street Cops is collection of stories about a city and its people on both sides of the law.’ Above, a police officer speaks with a little girl at an event

Изображения Фридман “сырые и прямые; она не боится показать ужас”, – говорится в пресс-релизе книги. Но она также уловила юмор и нежность ситуации. Уязвимость. Фридман подходила к фотографии с антропологическим интересом и без осуждения. Она хотела рассказать историю так, как она ее видела и слышала”. Street Cops – это коллекция историй о городе и его людях по обе стороны закона”. Вверху полицейский разговаривает с маленькой девочкой на одном из мероприятий.

'Sometimes you wonder about yourself. What makes you go out looking?' Freedman wrote in Street Cops. 'What makes you go riding around Harlem or the South Bronx in the middle of the night?' Above, two cops scale a wall

‘Sometimes you wonder about yourself. What makes you go out looking?’ Freedman wrote in Street Cops. ‘What makes you go riding around Harlem or the South Bronx in the middle of the night?’ Above, two cops scale a wall 

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